Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies

Ministry of Science and Technology


Pakistan Second National Communication on Climate Change under UNFCCC

Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies

Brief for Relevant Departments


1.         Background

Global climate change, which has profound impacts on human survival and development, poses a major challenge to all nations. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provides that ‘all Parties to the Convention should, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, safeguard the climate system for the present and future generations of mankind; and that the developed countries should take the lead in addressing climate change and & adverse impacts’.

In accordance with the provision of UNFCCC, each Party has an obligation to submit its National Communication, including the National Greenhouse Inventory, measures taken and to be taken for the implementation of the Convention, as well as other information that the Party considers relevant. Developing country Parties are required to submit their first NC within three years of entering the Convention, and every four years thereafter.

2.         Introduction

Pakistan submitted its Initial National Communication on Climate Change in the year 2003. The process of formulation of Pakistan’s Second National Communication on Climate Change was initiated in year 2016. The Project is supporting in preparation of SNC (by June, 2018), which would include:

a)         The National inventory of the greenhouse gases utilizing the 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines and 2000 Good Practice Guidance;

b)         Measures to address climate change mitigation;

c)         Vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments of the impacts of climate change on water resources and glaciers, agriculture and livestock, energy, health, forestry and rangeland, biodiversity, and coastal areas and other fragile ecosystems, as well as vulnerable livelihoods;

d)        Efforts to further integrate climate change into development planning and the work programs of national institutions;

e)         Identification of constraints, gaps and related financial, technical and capacity needs for development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies.

f)          Compilation and production of the Second National Communications of Pakistan for submission to the Conference of the Parties.

The preparation of the SNC is expected to enhance general awareness and knowledge on climate change-related issues in Pakistan. It is seeking to assist in the process of national planning and policy formulation, especially as it relates to mainstreaming vulnerability, and adaptation and mitigation measures within the work programme of the various stakeholder agencies. In addition, it will contribute to the social and economic development of the country by reducing vulnerability associated with climate change, or proposing options to do so in the sectors mentioned above.


3.                  Implementation Arrangements of Project


Ministry of Climate Change is the Implementing Partner for SNC Project. The Project is being implemented as per agreed Project Document between Ministry of Climate Change and United Nations Environment Programme. Based on available Guidelines of UNFCCC for Second National Communication, 7 Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) have been formed to work on specific outputs of the SNC Project. Each TWG is headed by a ‘Team Lead’, which is from a reputable national institution having specific mandate and expertise relevant to Output. The Composition of TWG has already been approved by Project’s National Steering Committee.

MoSTwas declared as the Lead Institution for the chapter on the “Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies”. MoST has appointedPCRET on its behalf as the ‘Team Lead’ for Thematic Working Groups (TWG) on ‘Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies’ under SNC Project. This role of PCRET has already been approved by The Project’s National Steering Committee in year-2016.


4.                  Development and Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies

Most of the world’s environmental problems are due to the lack of understanding of the impact of human activity upon the environment. New management methods and decision support tools must therefore be developed and applied. In this scenario, the importance of the effective dissemination and use of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) is increasing as climate change is a hot issue and the environment related technologies play an integral role in tackling climate change.


Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) are technologies that have the potential for significantly improved environmental performance relative to other technologies. ESTs protect the environment, are less polluting, use resources in a sustainable manner, recycle more of their wastes and products, and handle all residual wastes in a more environmentally acceptable way than the technologies for which they are substitutes. ESTs are not just individual technologies. They can also be defined as total systems that include know-how, goods, services, and equipment, as well as organizational and managerial procedures

Based on these characteristics, the definition of ESTs:

1.      Applies to the transition of all technologies in becoming more environmentally sound;

2.      Captures the full life cycle flow of the material, energy and water in the production and consumption system;

3.      Covers the full spectrum from basic technologies that are adjunct to the production and consumption system, to fully integrated technologies where the environmental technology is the production or consumption technology itself;

4.      Includes closed system technologies (where the goal is zero waste and/or significant reductions in resource use), as well as environmental technologies that may result in emissions; and

5.      Considers technology development within both contexts the ecological as well as social context.


5.                  Role of PCRET in Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs)


The mandate of PCRET is “Committed to Research, Develop, Promote and Disseminate to create Renewable Energy Culture”. As renewable energy covers major portion of environment friendly technologies in the power sector, hence PCRET has been assigned the task of writing a chapter of SNC namely “Development and transfer of ESTs.